Adam Maisel and William Duval
The United States has recently been derided for losing the ongoing information war, and has fallen victim to successive propaganda and disinformation campaigns orchestrated by Russia without a significant response. Given Russia’s meddling in the 2016 US elections, along with other aggressive efforts against Western democratic institutions, it is imperative for the United States to adequately respond to Russian “active measures” in the information environment (IE).
The information era in which we live today brings the process of strategic communication to the concerns of high-level policy makers. The global consequences brought about by the Snowden leaks of 2013 is explicit evidence of this. My aim is to promote awareness of the public misconceptions with regards to the notion of mass-surveillance and to explore why governments did not efficiently communicate with the public in the context of the Snowden case.
The image of the “tycoon” in politics, which is now represented completely by Donald Trump, was introduced more than 20 years ago by Italy. With Berlusconi’s return to politics, it is interesting to notice a shift in his style, from a buccaneer-like political communicator, the epic self-made man continually attacking the evil “communists”, to a calmer – even soft – communication style: the “good old savvy man”, trying to restore some order to the Italian political labyrinth.